An Image Steganography Method Resistive to Fall Off Boundary Value Problem with Five Pixel Pair Differencing
Avinash K. Gulve
- MCA Department, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India, Pin-431005
Madhuri S. Joshi
- Computer Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India, Pin-431005
Although secret information can be securely hidden in the cover image using PVD approach, it suffers from
fall off boundary problem especially when the pixel values are close to the boundaries. In the PVD
approach, the pixel values of two pixels in a pair are so adjusted that the difference between these two pixel
values represents the hidden information. But in this process, sometimes the pixel values exceed the
boundaries and the cover image becomes unsuitable for hiding secret information. The proposed method is
robust against the fall off boundary problem. Cover image is partitioned in the blocks of 2 × 3 pixels forming
five pairs in each block. Difference value is calculated for each pair. If the difference value of at least one
pair is greater than 127, the block is marked as edged block otherwise it is marked as smooth block. Fall
off boundary problem is severe for edged blocks. Hence LSB substitution method is used for hiding secret
data in the edged block and PVD approach is used for hiding secret data in smooth block. A separate
selection process is used for selecting edged blocks for hiding secret data since hiding data using LSB
substitution method can convert it into smooth block. This conversion of edged block into smooth block
during embedding process results in the unsuccessful extraction of original secret data during extraction.
The proposed method provides improved hiding capacity and PSNR values in comparison with existing
image steganography methods based on PVD approach.
- PVD Steganography
- LSB Substitution
- Fall off boundary value problem
- Information hiding
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